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Types of Windows-Based on Operating Types, Style, Place

A Window may be defined as an opening made in a wall for the purpose of providing daylight, vision, and ventilation.

Windows are normally provided with two leaves. The number of windows to be provided in a room depends upon the size of the room to be lighted, location of room, direction of wind and climatic considerations.

Different types of windows :

Types of Windows Based on Operating Types

Awning Window

They are hinged at top and open outwards and upwards

Ideal for climates with rain and snow as it prevents them from entering the room

PROS: Have lower leakage rates

CONS: Requires frequent maintenance

Hopper Window

They are hinged at the bottom and open inwards

Mostly suited for basements as limit inner space

PROS: Easy to operate and maintain

CONS: Limits inner space of room and possibility of entry of rainwater

Fixed Window

Glass panes or shutter is permanently fixed and are airtight.

Used in places where vision is required and not suitable where ventilation is desired

Casement Window

They are hinged on sides and opened outwards(mostly) and inwards

PROS: More ventilation and less leakage rates

CONS: As it opens outwards it cannot be installed in passages/walkways

Sash Window


Consists of a pair of shutters in which top sash is fixed and bottom is movable


Consists of a pair of shutters which slide vertically within grooves provided in window

PROS: Controlled ventilation and can be cleaned easily

CONS: Limited ventilation since one sash is fixed in single hung.

Sliding Window

In this window shutter slide horizontally on a track roller bearing

Suitable where large openings are there since they cannot be opened fully

PROS: Minimum maintenance and does not project out, provide clear movement of space

CONS: Cannot be opened fully rails accumulate dirt and dust.

Pivoted Window

A pivoting window rotates about a pivot fixed to a window

The shutter can rotate horizontally or vertical depending upon position of pivot

Half window opens inside and half window opens outside

Found in old church windows that are narrow and tall

Types of Windows Based on Style

Bay Window

A bay window project outward is a combination of three (or more) windows in which one is parallel to wall and other two are angled beyond walls

Used when outside space is more and aesthetics and inside space is used as a seating or a display of plants

PROS: Natural light enters from different directions and provide multiple views

CONS: Expensive and have to be checked for structure is well supported.

Bow Window

Similar to the bay window, but the difference is that the bay window is curved forming an arch with more no. of panels

PROS: Elegant, creates more space in the interior and gives a panoramic view

CONS: Expensive and difficult to maintain.

Picture Window

Picture windows are large fixed windows which provide clear beautiful view similar to a bay window

They can be rectangular, square, oval or any other shape and provide unobstructed views

PROS: Easy to install and maintain, provide picture-perfect majestic view, energy-efficient

CONS: No ventilation

Palladian Windows

Palladian windows are set of three windows together with an arch over the central window.

Types of Windows Based on Place

Sky Light

It is a fixed window installed in the ceiling or a sloping surface of a pitched roof.

Allows natural light from overhead adding beauty.

Transom Window

Narrow windows located above a door or window to provide additional light

Suited in places where natural light is less like storage spaces, garages.

Corner Window

Located in the corner of the room at right angles to each other

It allows light and ventilation from two directions and views from both sides.

Dormer Window

Vertical window built-in sloping side of pitch roof.

It allows light and ventilation for the closed space below the roof.

Gable Window

Window provided in the gable end of a pitched roof

Clerestory Window

Clerestory window are provided near the top of the roof or above lintel

Types of Windows Based on Speciality Types

Storm Window

A sub-window placed on the interior or exterior side of the main glass window

This second layer traps the heat keeping interiors warm during winter and colder during summer

Also perfect for areas with inclement weather and coastal areas

PROS: Economical and increases efficiency of standard windows

CONS: Requires high maintenance

Egress Window

Egress windows are for safety and security

This type of window provides an escape route in case of emergency such as fire, earthquake etc.

Typically excavated and installed in basements

PROS: Provides escape route and ventilates basement areas

CONS: Installation cost is high due to excavation.


Triangular, round, hexagonal, arched, semicircular, etc.

PROS: Unique architectural feature/aesthetical

CONS: Does not supplement with all design styles

Jalousie Windows

These windows consist of parallel glass, acrylic or wooden louvers which can be tilted open and closed like blinders

PROS: Affordable and easy to install, can be kept open during rains

CONS: Not as secure as other windows

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