Types of Windows-Based on Operating Types, Style, Place
A Window may be defined as an opening made in a wall for the purpose of providing daylight, vision, and ventilation.
Windows are normally provided with two leaves. The number of windows to be provided in a room depends upon the size of the room to be lighted, location of room, direction of wind and climatic considerations.
Different types of windows :
Types of Windows Based on Operating Types
They are hinged at top and open outwards and upwards
Ideal for climates with rain and snow as it prevents them from entering the room
PROS: Have lower leakage rates
CONS: Requires frequent maintenance
They are hinged at the bottom and open inwards
Mostly suited for basements as limit inner space
PROS: Easy to operate and maintain
CONS: Limits inner space of room and possibility of entry of rainwater
Glass panes or shutter is permanently fixed and are airtight.
Used in places where vision is required and not suitable where ventilation is desired
They are hinged on sides and opened outwards(mostly) and inwards
PROS: More ventilation and less leakage rates
CONS: As it opens outwards it cannot be installed in passages/walkways
SINGLE HUNG WINDOW
Consists of a pair of shutters in which top sash is fixed and bottom is movable
DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW
Consists of a pair of shutters which slide vertically within grooves provided in window
PROS: Controlled ventilation and can be cleaned easily
CONS: Limited ventilation since one sash is fixed in single hung.
In this window shutter slide horizontally on a track roller bearing
Suitable where large openings are there since they cannot be opened fully
PROS: Minimum maintenance and does not project out, provide clear movement of space
CONS: Cannot be opened fully rails accumulate dirt and dust.
A pivoting window rotates about a pivot fixed to a window
The shutter can rotate horizontally or vertical depending upon position of pivot
Half window opens inside and half window opens outside
Found in old church windows that are narrow and tall
Types of Windows Based on Style
A bay window project outward is a combination of three (or more) windows in which one is parallel to wall and other two are angled beyond walls
Used when outside space is more and aesthetics and inside space is used as a seating or a display of plants
PROS: Natural light enters from different directions and provide multiple views
CONS: Expensive and have to be checked for structure is well supported.
Similar to the bay window, but the difference is that the bay window is curved forming an arch with more no. of panels
PROS: Elegant, creates more space in the interior and gives a panoramic view
CONS: Expensive and difficult to maintain.
Picture windows are large fixed windows which provide clear beautiful view similar to a bay window
They can be rectangular, square, oval or any other shape and provide unobstructed views
PROS: Easy to install and maintain, provide picture-perfect majestic view, energy-efficient
CONS: No ventilation
Palladian windows are set of three windows together with an arch over the central window.
Types of Windows Based on Place
It is a fixed window installed in the ceiling or a sloping surface of a pitched roof.
Allows natural light from overhead adding beauty.
Narrow windows located above a door or window to provide additional light
Suited in places where natural light is less like storage spaces, garages.
Located in the corner of the room at right angles to each other
It allows light and ventilation from two directions and views from both sides.
Vertical window built-in sloping side of pitch roof.
It allows light and ventilation for the closed space below the roof.
Window provided in the gable end of a pitched roof
Clerestory window are provided near the top of the roof or above lintel
Types of Windows Based on Speciality Types
A sub-window placed on the interior or exterior side of the main glass window
This second layer traps the heat keeping interiors warm during winter and colder during summer
Also perfect for areas with inclement weather and coastal areas
PROS: Economical and increases efficiency of standard windows
CONS: Requires high maintenance
Egress windows are for safety and security
This type of window provides an escape route in case of emergency such as fire, earthquake etc.
Typically excavated and installed in basements
PROS: Provides escape route and ventilates basement areas
CONS: Installation cost is high due to excavation.
Triangular, round, hexagonal, arched, semicircular, etc.
PROS: Unique architectural feature/aesthetical
CONS: Does not supplement with all design styles
These windows consist of parallel glass, acrylic or wooden louvers which can be tilted open and closed like blinders
PROS: Affordable and easy to install, can be kept open during rains
CONS: Not as secure as other windows