Types of doors – Based on Materials, Mechanism, Components
A Door may be defined as a framework of wood, steel, aluminum, glass or a combination of these materials secured in an opening left in a wall for the purposes of providing access to the users of the structures. Door basically consists of a frame and shutter. Following are the types of doors –
- Based on Location
- Based on Materials
- Construction and Components
Doorways have to
- Large enough to pass through easily.
- Furniture and other equipment can move through without any great effect.
- Provide watertight seals.
- Maintain appropriate thermal insulation value.
Based on Location
As the name suggests, they are used externally mainly on the façade of a building. Exterior doors or front doors are given utmost importance due to safety and security reasons. They need to be weather resistant as they are exposed to various climatic conditions.
Interior doors separate different rooms and provide privacy. They are generally thinner than exterior doors and require no weather resistant qualities.
Types of Doors Based on Materials
Based on the material used for construction, they are classified into various types.
Wood or timber is used since ancient times when the construction techniques’ have evolved.
Used in interior or exterior applications.
- Easy to install and maintain
- Soundproof provides insulation,
- Strength and security
- Durable and lasts for years
- Various designs are possible to craft.
- Eco-friendly material
- Care should be taken by sealing to prevent from absorption of moisture
- May sag over time as per differential atmospheric conditions
- Termites may effect the function.
This door is functional in residential, commercial-like shops and public buildings like hospitals, schools. Glass panels are fixed indoor/shutter frame which enhances light and vision. They can be fully glazed or partially glazed.
- Supplements the natural lighting
- Improves the vision of the adjacent room
- Adds beauty and luxury to design
- Expensive and heavy
- Tend to break easily unless handled with care
- Security matters
Used in interior or exterior applications. Made up of mild steel or aluminum etc.
- Economical, durable and strong
- Available in various forms like a fire-rated door.
- Withstand atmospheric conditions
- Prone to rusting depending on the type of metal used
- Not suitable for all design styles and lack aesthetics
PVC doors are from polyvinyl chloride and mostly useful as it is fire resistant.
- Economical and durable
- Light in weight and easy to install
- Resists damage by termites
- Weather and moisture resistant
- As it is light in weight cannot hold heavy locks firmly and affects security
Mostly used for exteriors. Available in a variety of designs and styles
- Durable and resistant to extreme climate conditions
- Elegant and classy
- Energy efficient
- Expensive than standard wood
- Difficult to get custom size doors
Types of Doors Depending on Mechanism
When pulled or pushed, the door normally turns on hinges. It may also be pivoted from head jamb. The shutters are fixed with double action spring hinges which hold the shutter in the closed position when not in use.
Usually provided in public buildings like offices, banks, etc.
- Easy to operate
- Closes automatically without using energy.
- Effective for thermal and acoustic insulation.
- Weather resistant
- If the door opens inside and people present an accident might occur.
- Requires space clearance around the doorway for swing.
Revolving door has four or more leaves radiating from a central shaft which rotate about vertical axis forming sections or compartments.
Useful at places like public places where frequent opening and closing is necessary.
Pros : Forms a part of façade.
Cons : Few are very narrow and difficult to push, confuse if two people enter at same time.
Folding doors has even no. of sections and folded in pairs. Hinged door panels fold against one another when opened.
Mostly used as room divider and create visual extension as a single room.
Door is provided with top and bottom guide rails where the shutters slide. In this type of door, shutter can slide sideways, upwards.
Suitable for shop, sheds, godown, garage, offices where wider openings are required.
- Bypass sliding door.
- Surface sliding door. (Surface – hung)
- Pocket sliding door.
- Provides clear space of movement as operation space reduces.
- Good visual screening.
- Rails accumulate dirt and dust.
- Bypass sliding door offers access to only 50% of the doorway width.
- Difficult to seal against weather and sound.
- These doors are extensively used for shops, garages, public buildings, godowns etc.
- Door is fabricated with mild steel sections of vertical sections and braces.
Pros : Provides increased safety and privacy
Cons : Noisy, collects more dust and not for aesthetic purpose
- Commonly used for show windows, stores, shop fronts etc.
- Shutter consists of thin steel slabs interlocked to each other and coiled upon pipe shaft-mounted top of opening.
Pros : Provides increased safety and privacy, protection against wind and rain
Cons : Rust depending on type of material
Types of Doors Based on Construction and Components
Battened and Ledged Door
This door consists of vertical battens (75-100mm wide) or boards mostly tongued and grooved and fixed together with horizontal battens called ledges.
3 ledges -one on top, middle and bottom
Mostly recommended for toilet, WC’s etc.
Battened, Ledged and Brace Door
This door is an improved form of battened and ledged door
Two additional members called braces are placed inclined between the ledges
Battens 100-175mm wide and 20mm thick, ledges 175 to 225mm wide and 20-30mm thick, braces 125 to 175mm wide and 20-30mm thick
Can be used for wider openings where appearance is not important.
Battened, Ledged Braced and Framed Door
This is an improved form of battened, ledged and brace door.
An addition of framework is provided with two vertical members called stiles
Suitable for external use