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5 Different Climate Zones in India and Their Important Characteristics

Climate refers to average weather conditions observed over a long period of time for a given area. India is a home to different variations of climate regions, ranging from tropical in the South to temperate in the North. The Nation’s climate is influenced by the Himalayas, deserts and the oceans surrounding the Indian Peninsula. The various climate Zones in India are referred by World Climate Zones.

World Climate Zones

The Worls climatic zone are as per Koppen Climate Classification. They are largely divided into five climatic zones.

They are

  • Tropical
  • Dry
  • Temperate
  • Cold
  • Polar

India Climate Zones

  • Hot-Dry
  • Warm-Humid
  • Composite
  • Temperate
  • Cold

1. Hot and Dry Climate

Hot and Dry climate is seen in western parts of the country where desert like conditions exist.

  • Jaipur
  • Jaisalmer
  • Kutch
  • Gujarat
  • Maharashtra

Characteristics

  • Temperatures: Very hot weather in summer and cold in winter
    • Summer- temperatures vary from 40-45 deg C
    • Winters – Min temperatures- 5-25 deg C
    • High temperature difference between Day and Night
    • High Solar Radiation causes glare
    • Hot Winds
  • Rainfall: Minimal rainfall
  • Humidity: Low Relative Humidity
  • Groundcover: Dry sandy or rocky ground with less vegetation
  • Sky Condition: Cloudless sky

2. Warm and Humid Climate

Warm and Humid climate is present in the regions which are in close proximity to the water bodies, such as coastal areas.

  • Kerala
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Goa
  • Parts of Andhra Pradesh
  • Parts of Orissa

Characteristics

  • Temperatures: Not very high
    • Vary between 25-35 deg C in summer and 20-30 deg C in winter.
  • Humidity: Very high humidity
  • Rainfall: High rainfall (about 12mm per year)
  • Sky Condition: Clouds cover 40-80%

3. Composite Climate

The Composite Climate covers the central part of India.

  • New Delhi
  • Kanpur
  • Allahabad

Characteristics

  • Temperatures: 32-43 deg C during summer and 10-25 deg C during winter.
  • Humidity: Variable (20-25% in dry periods and 50-95% in wet periods.
  • Rainfall: Variable (500-1300mm per year)
  • Sky Condition: variable

4. Temperate/Moderate Climate

Temperate/Moderate Climate regions vary in small parts in India and are considered as the most comfortable Climate zones in India.

  • Banglore
  • Pune

Characteristics

  • Temperatures: The temperatures are in comfort ranges between 30-34deg C during Summer and 27-33deg C during winter.
  • Humidity: Low in winter and summer (20-55%) and high (55-90%) during monsoons.
  • Rainfall: low rainfall (1000mm per year)
  • Sky Condition: Mainly clear or dense low clouds in summer.

5. Cold Climate

Cold Climate exists in the northern parts of the country near Himalayas.

  • Shimla
  • Shillong
  • Leh

Characteristics

  • Temperatures: Typically, low temperatures; 17-20 deg C during summer and -7 to 8 deg C during winter.
  • Humidity: low in sunny regions and high in cloudy regions.
  • Rainfall: low (200mm per year) to Moderate (1000mm per year.
  • Sky Condition: clean with less than 50% cloud cover.

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