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5 Different Climate Zones in India and Important Characteristics

Climate refers to average weather conditions observed over a long period in a given area. India is home to different variations in climate regions, ranging from tropical in the South to temperate in the North. The Himalayas, deserts, and oceans influence the Nation’s climate surrounding the Indian Peninsula. World Climate Zones refer to the various climate Zones in India.

World Climate Zones and Climate Zones in India

Let us explore the various climate zones in the world and in India.

World Climate Zones

The World climatic zone is as per Koppen Climate Classification. We largely divided them into five climatic zones.

They are

  • Tropical
  • Dry
  • Temperate
  • Cold
  • Polar

Climate Zones in India

  • Hot-Dry
  • Warm-Humid
  • Composite
  • Temperate
  • Cold

1. Hot and Dry Climate

A hot and Dry climate is seen in western parts of the country where desert-like conditions exist.

  • Jaipur
  • Jaisalmer
  • Kutch
  • Gujarat
  • Maharashtra

Characteristics

  • Temperatures: Very hot weather in summer and cold in winter
    • Summer- temperatures vary from 40 to 45 deg C
    • Winters – Min temperatures- 5-25 deg C
    • High-temperature difference between Day and Night
    • High Solar Radiation causes glare
    • Hot Winds
  • Rainfall: Minimal rainfall
  • Humidity: Low Relative Humidity
  • Groundcover: Dry sandy or rocky ground with less vegetation
  • Sky Condition: Cloudless sky

2. Warm and Humid Climate

Warm and Humid climate is present in regions that are in proximity to the water bodies, such as coastal areas.

  • Kerala
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Goa
  • Parts of Andhra Pradesh
  • Parts of Orissa

Characteristics

  • Temperatures: Not very high
    • Vary between 25-35 deg C in summer and 20-30 deg C in winter.
  • Humidity: Very high humidity
  • Rainfall: High rainfall (about 12mm per year)
  • Sky Condition: Clouds cover 40-80%

3. Composite Climate

The Composite Climate covers the central part of India.

  • New Delhi
  • Kanpur
  • Allahabad

Characteristics

  • Temperatures: 32-43 deg C during summer and 10-25 deg C during winter.
  • Humidity: Variable (20-25% in dry periods and 50-95% in wet periods.
  • Rainfall: Variable (500-1300mm per year)
  • Sky Condition: variable

4. Temperate/Moderate Climate

Temperate/Moderate Climate regions vary in small parts of India and are considered the most comfortable climate zones in India.

  • Banglore
  • Pune

Characteristics

  • Temperatures: The temperatures are in comfort ranges between 30-34deg C during Summer and 27-33deg C during winter.
  • Humidity: Low in winter and summer (20-55%) and high (55-90%) during monsoons.
  • Rainfall: low rainfall (1000mm per year)
  • Sky Condition: Mainly clear or dense low clouds in summer.

5. Cold Climate

Cold Climate exists in the northern parts of the country near the Himalayas.

  • Shimla
  • Shillong
  • Leh

Characteristics

  • Temperatures: Typically, low temperatures; are 17-20 deg C during summer and -7 to 8 deg C during winter.
  • Humidity: low in sunny regions and high in cloudy regions.
  • Rainfall: low (200mm per year) to Moderate (1000mm per year.
  • Sky Condition: clean with less than 50% cloud cover.

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