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Doors and Windows in Building Construction

Doors provide ingress/access from outside into the interior of a building as well as passage between interior spaces. The openings – both doors and windows affects the

  • Physical appearance of the building.
  • Natural lighting and ventilation.
  • Potential of views.
  • Spatial quality of interior spaces.

Doors and windows are important compositional elements in the design of building facades. They affect the massing, visual weight, scale, and articulation of the building form.

Door frames especially establishes the appearance of a doorway.

Doors and windows

Doors have to be

  • Large enough to move through easily.
  • Accommodate the moving of furnishings and other equipment.
  • Appropriate patterns of movement to the users.
  • Suitable for other activities.
  • Ease of operation
  • Durable
  • Security provisions
  • Light and ventilation
  • Views

Door Types

There are various types of doors based on Location, Materials, Mechanism, and components.

Exterior doors

  • Weathertight seals for exterior doors when closed.
  • They have to maintain approximate thermal insulation value of the exterior walls they penetrate.
  • Fire resistance requirements as per building code.
  • Emergency egress.

Interior Doors

  • Should offer visual and acoustical privacy at desired levels.
  • Ease of operation.

Manufacturers may have standard sizes for various doors and windows types. However, the size and location of doors and windows should be carefully planned so that lintels can be built into the wall systems that is required for structural safety.

Based on Materials

  • Timber Door
  • Glazed Door
  • Metal Door
  • PVC Door
  • Fiberglass Doors


  • Swing Door
  • Revolving Door
  • Folding Door
  • Sliding Door
  • Collapsible Door
  • Rolling Door

Based on Construction and Components

  • Battened and Ledged Door
  • Battened, Ledged and Brace Door
  • Battened, Ledged Braced and Framed Door

Door Hardware :

Door Hardware includes metal fastenings, hinges, locksets, and closers, etc. that are required for the operation of the door.

Finishes for Door :

  • Primed or galvanized for painting.
  • Baked enamel paint
  • Vinyl clad
  • Stainless steel skins in polished textures.

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