Gothic Architecture – 5 Unique Features that Fascinate
Gothic Architecture evolved from Romanesque architecture and prevalent in Europe from late 12th century to 16th century. It was complete full of art work, light, glass, and vaults and more finer and transcalent than before.
Unique and outstanding qualities of Gothic architecture are –
- Unique way of handling architectural stress.
- Arches designed to push each other, stone walls stabilized by flying buttresses and reached heights never before.
- Lengthy Spires as if meeting the sky.
- Extraordinary use of light from luminescent stained glass windows.
- Vaulted ceilings, pinnacles, tracery, and mesmerizing decorative details.
Architectural Features of Religious Gothic Architecture
The churches were of Basilica type with a central Nave and side aisles separated by arcades. The nave is higher with vaulted ceilings, large windows and clerestories’ that let the natural light inside. Flying Buttresses support Central Naves in Gothic Architecture. The buttresses supported the weight, as a result, this allowed the buildings to be taller, with thinner walls and wider windows.
In addition to basilicas and hall churches, that were constructed along horizontal axis, centrally planned churches were designed with round or polygonal forms. In the halls, a choir screen divided the Nave and the choir that separates the monks and clergy.
1. Pointed Arches
The most significant and impressive characteristics of Gothic style is the pointed arches. Arches were pointed to allow them to bear greater weights of masonry above them. They were used both for structurally and decorative purposes. The pointed arches were also used for construction purposes, such as to bring transverse vaults equal to the height of diagonal vaults.
Arches give a sensation of heights and vertically drawing our eyes upwards, similar to spires. Pointed arches adoring the facades were impressive and were commonly used for arcades, windows, and doorways.
The pointed arches of early Gothic period were narrow windows terminating in a lancet arch (lancet windows).In the later periods, these pointed arches were of different sizes and decorated with sculptures.
2. Ribbed Vaults
Large unique windows and great heights and widths were possible with Ribbed vaults. Ribs (little arch frames) span the vaulted area transversely and each vaulted bay has diagonal ribs similar to a groin vault. They consists of diagonal crossing arched ribs. Small pieces of stones were filled in between these ribs. Here, the ribs are structural members which direct the thrust outside to the corner of the vault and downwards to columns below by colonettes. The outward thrust against the walls was countered by the weight of buttresses and later flying buttresses. As a result, walls were thinner, unlike thick walls of Romanesque architecture. Six ribbed vaults in the earlier periods and four ribbed vaults in later stages were more common.
In the later periods, the four ribbed vaults were more decorative with additional features or forms such as
- More decorative features.
- Addition of ribs to form a star design and branching patterns.
- Additional decorative ribs formed triangular and geometric forms.
- Ribs spacing equidistantly upwards and outwards in the shape of a fan – Fan vault
- Other new forms were skeleton vault, umbrella vault, elaborate vaults.
3. Windows and Stained Glass
Glass was melted and colored with traditional techniques and lead was used to join stained glass fragments. The windows were featured with the stories of bible.
Rose windows were a significant feature of Gothic Style Architecture and rose was considered as symbol of Virgin Mary. The design of the rose windows were circular with stain glass patterns with a circle and radiating patters meeting at perimeter of the circle. It illustrates God’s love radiating to all sides.
Most of the Gothic cathedrals included rose windows in the western facades.
Tracery is the decorative system in Gothic windows. The windows were divided into various sections by stone bars or ribs. Different forms of geometrical ,floral and radial patterns present Gothic style with a unique definitive character. They were not only used on windows but also on walls, gables, gablets, etc.
A study of rose windows – https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00004-015-0264-6
4. Flying Buttresses – A significant feature of Gothic Architecture
Another significant feature of Gothic architecture is the flying buttresses. These buttresses were in the arch form standing outside the cathedrals and carried the thrust or weight of the roof to a heavy stone column. They were placed in rows in the external facades, similar to arcades and several decorative features were added to them. In German cathedrals, buttresses were richly decorated with sculptures, ornamental features, and pinnacles.
The buttresses not only served as structural purposes but also formed an elegant and awe-inspiring feature for the facades. Pinnacles adored the buttresses on the top. They were also serving for practical purposes that carried the rainwater runoff by lead channels. The rain water expels from the mouth of Gorgoyles.
5. Towers and Spires of Gothic Architecture
Spectacular towers and spires were notable and inspiring features of Gothic style. Most of the facades have the central rectangular section (belfry) that contains a bell, including two planned towers on either side and spires on the rooftop. The purposes of a bell tower were –
- Belfry’s as an interesting feature of the façade.
- Announcement of religious services.
- The ring of the bell was also considered as a warning when an enemy attacks.
- Announcement for celebration of victories.
The towers and spires represented great heights; visibly prominent buildings among other structures of the city were considered symbolic of the path of heaven. Octagonal spires rising up the sky were standing on triangular or polygonal bases. The sculptures of the saints and Judgment day adorn the entrances of the cathedrals.