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Type of Paints – Based on Solvents, Composition, Finish


Paint is a form of liquid which, on drying, forms a thin film on the painted surface. It can be applied on timber, brick or on any other materials. The main function of paint is to provide protection or decoration or both. Also paints conceal imperfections on the surface and protect from weather, moisture and chemicals, etc. Type of paints vary based on solvents, application, sheen, etc.

It prevents wooden structures against warping, checking, or decay. Metals corrode if not painted at suitable intervals. Painting enables the masonry and concrete work to resist checking and disintegration, thereby extending life.

Paint is composed of base, pigment, organic binder and additives.

Pigment – Solid ingredient of paint and is used in the form of fine powder. Pigments provide color for the finished product. Provides film adhesion and protects the substrate from corrosion, weather, and abrasion. Its characteristics are Opacity, Color and Gloss.

Organic Binder – Liquid part of paint and it is called vehicle.

Additives – Modify the properties of the vehicle or pigment or both.

Commonly used Coatings:

  • A typical paint system consists of Primer and one or two top-coats. Primers are applied directly over the bare surface to improve adhesion of subsequent coats. Primer sealers and corrosion-resistant primers are commonly used type of primers.
  • Fillers are used to fill and repair porous substrates before applying a paint material. Concrete block fillers for masonry surfaces and wood fillers for hardwoods are applied.
  • Varnishes and Lacquer are commonly referred as transparent finish.

Type of Paints Based on Solvent

  • Water – Based Paints
  • Oil – Based Paints

Water-Based Paints:

The solvent or binder used in water-based paints is almost water


  • Low VOC’s emission
  • Flexible and less susceptible to cracking
  • More resistant to UV rays
  • Can tolerate small amounts of moisture prior to application as it absorbs moisture.
  • Takes less time to dry.
  • Does not require a pre-treatment
  • Stable color over time, doesn’t become yellow


  • Lower sheen finish when compared to oil-based paints.
  • Less tolerable to different variations in weather conditions.

Oil-Based Paints:

Oil based paints use an organic solvent typically a mineral turpentine.


  • Good for high moisture rooms.
  • High durability and rich finish/sheen.
  • Excellent resistance to wear and tear.
  • More tolerant to differing weather conditions.
  • Brushstrokes fill themselves-no strokes seen appearing smooth finish.


  • Less flexible, likely to crack, become dry and brittle over time.
  • High toxic emissions (VOC’s)may lead to health issues.
  • If moisture is present on the surface, oil paints repel and does not create a strong the surface has to be completely dried.
  • Take longer periods to dry.
  • Turns yellow over time.

Types of Paints Based on Composition and Usage

Aluminium Paints

  • Used for woodwork and metal surfaces.
  • Made by mixture of aluminum powder and quick drying spirit varnish/slow drying oil varnish to suit requirements of surface.
  • Weather resisting and waterproofing qualities.
  • Resistant to corrosive action of seawater.

Bronze Paints

  • Mostly used for painting interior or exterior metallic surface, commonly applied on radiators.
  • High reflective property.

Anti-Corrosive Paints

  • Used as a metal protection paint for preserving structural steelwork.
  • Prevents from effect of acids, fumes, corrosive chemicals.
  • Resistant to rough weather conditions.

Cement Based Paints

  • Type of water paint in which white or colored pigment and cement forms the base.
  • Applied to exposed or plastered brick masonry and concrete work.

Asbestos Paints

  • Especially suitable for patchwork or stopping leakage in metal roofs.
  • Used for painting gutters, flashings, etc. To prevent from rusting.

Bituminous Paints

  • Used for painting exterior brickwork and plastered surfaces.
  • Alkali resistant and provide protection of iron and steel.

Enamel Paints

  • Made by adding pigments like white lead or zinc white to a binder which is varnish.
  • Stand well with the adverse effects of atmosphere.
  • Commonly used for painting porches, decks, stairs, concrete surfaces.

Rubber Base Paints

  • The paint is made from rubber treated with chlorine gas which is dissolved in suitable solvents and mixed with other pigments.
  • Excellent acid, alkali and moisture resistant properties.
  • Commonly used as protective coating on cement concrete floors, interior or exterior masonry surfaces.

Cellulose Paints

  • Paint is made from celluloid sheets and amyl-acetate substitutes.
  • Stands well with rough weather conditions.
  • Hard, flexible and smooth.
  • Due to its high costs, restricted to motor cars/vehicles.

Casein Paints

  • Casein is a protein substance extracted from milk curd which is mixed with a base consisting of white pigment.
  • High opacity.
  • Usually applied on walls, ceiling, wallboards, cement blocks to enhance the appearance of the surface.

Type of Paints Based on Finish/Sheen

Flat/Matte Finish

  • Low gloss and non-reflective finish (low gloss paint sheens absorb light).
  • Mostly used for interior walls and ceilings of living, bedroom, dining, etc.
  • Perfect for low traffic areas.
  • Hides imperfections like chips or cracks in walls.
  • Hard to clean handprints and other marks.
  • Requires less no. of coats than glossy finishes.

Eggshell Finish

  • Low sheen, soft and velvety smooth like an eggshell.
  • A kind of sheen between satin/glossy and gives a beautiful classic look.
  • Perfect for low to mid traffic areas.
  • Have little reflectivity.

Satin Finish

  • Provides pearl-like smooth and velvety finish.
  • Easy to clean than low gloss finishes and resists chipping and peeling off.
  • Works well in high traffic indoor areas.
  • Reflect a bit of light.

Semi-Gloss Finish

  • Shiny than satin finish, smooth and sleek.
  • Less reflective than glossy finish and more reflective than matt and eggshell finishes.
  • High resistant to moisture, suitable for high traffic areas.
  • Bathrooms, kitchen cabinets, doors and windows etc.
  • Highlight imperfections on walls.

Gloss Finish/High-Gloss Finish

  • High reflective and glass-like finish (high gloss paints reflect light).
  • Suitable for high traffic areas.
  • Highlight imperfections on walls clearly.
  • Common for furniture, cabinets, decorative trims, etc.
  • Used on interior and exterior wooden moldings and metal surfaces.

Paints Application Method

Most common type of paints application methods are

  • Painting with Brushes
  • Spray Painting
  • Roller Painting

Proper application of paints depends on several factor such as

  • Surface Preparation
  • Material selection
  • Skill of the applicator
  • Environmental Conditions
  • Temperatures

Commonly Used Paint Materials

  • Paint – Easy to apply, often used on large and small wall surfaces. Flat, low-luster sheen.
  • Enamel – Dries out fast, commonly used on small and smooth surfaces. Semi-gloss and High-gloss sheen.
  • Stains – Generally used on wood surfaces, change the color of a surface and protect by penetrating the surface.
  • Varnishes – Homogeneous mixtures of resins, oils, driers, and solvents.
  • Lacquers – Dry quickly, film-forming solutions; mostly used on automobiles or furniture.

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